Inteligencia artificial (auto generado en inglés)

Inteligencia artificial (auto generado en inglés)
A.I. La inteligencia artificial (también conocida como A.I.) es una película estadounidense de ciencia ficción de 2001 dirigida por Steven Spielberg.

El guión de Spielberg y la historia de Ian Watson se basan en el cuento de 1969 "Los superjuguetes duran todo el verano" de Brian Aldiss.

La película fue producida por Kathleen Kennedy, Spielberg y Bonnie Curtis.

Está protagonizada por Haley Joel Osment, Jude Law, Frances O'Connor, Brendan Gleeson y William Hurt. Ambientada en una sociedad futurista posterior al cambio climático, A.I. cuenta la historia de David (Osment), un androide infantil programado de forma única con la capacidad de amar.El desarrollo de A.I. comenzó originalmente con el productor-director Stanley Kubrick, después de que éste adquiriera los derechos de la historia de Aldiss a principios de la década de 1970. Kubrick contrató a una serie de guionistas hasta mediados de los 90, entre los que se encontraban Brian Aldiss, Bob Shaw, Ian Watson y Sara Maitland.

La película languideció en el infierno del desarrollo durante años, en parte porque Kubrick consideraba que las imágenes generadas por ordenador no estaban lo suficientemente avanzadas para crear el personaje de David, al que creía que ningún actor infantil podría representar de forma convincente.

En 1995, Kubrick entregó A.I. a Spielberg, pero la película no cobró impulso hasta la muerte de Kubrick en 1999. Spielberg se mantuvo cerca del tratamiento cinematográfico de Watson para el guión.A.I.

Inteligencia Artificial fue estrenada en Norteamérica el 29 de junio de 2001 por Warner Bros. Pictures e internacionalmente por DreamWorks Pictures.

La película recibió críticas generalmente positivas y recaudó aproximadamente 235 millones de dólares con un presupuesto de entre 90 y 100 millones.

Fue nominada a los mejores efectos visuales y a la mejor partitura original en la 74ª edición de los premios de la Academia.

En una encuesta realizada por la BBC en 2016 entre 177 críticos de todo el mundo, la Inteligencia Artificial fue votada como la octogésima tercera mejor película desde el año 2000. A.I. está dedicada a Kubrick.

Argumento

En el siglo XXII, la subida del nivel del mar provocada por el calentamiento global ha acabado con las ciudades costeras, reduciendo la población mundial.

Se han creado mechas, robots humanoides aparentemente capaces de pensamiento complejo pero carentes de emociones.

En Madison, Nueva Jersey, David, un prototipo de niño Mecha capaz de experimentar el amor, es entregado a Henry Swinton y a su esposa Mónica, cuyo hijo Martin ha contraído una rara enfermedad y ha sido puesto en animación suspendida.

Al principio, Mónica se siente incómoda con David, pero finalmente se encariña con él y activa su protocolo de impresión, lo que le hace sentir un amor infantil duradero por ella. David intenta que Mónica exprese el mismo amor hacia él. También se hace amigo de Teddy, el oso de peluche robótico de Martin.

Inesperadamente, Martin se cura de su enfermedad y es llevado a casa. Martin se pone celoso de David, y le incita a realizar actos preocupantes, como cortarle mechones de pelo a Mónica mientras duerme.

En una fiesta en la piscina, uno de los amigos de Martin pincha a David con un cuchillo, lo que desencadena su programación de autoprotección.

David se agarra a Martin y ambos caen a la piscina.

Martin se salva antes de ahogarse, y Henry convence a Mónica de que devuelva a David a sus creadores para que lo destruyan, pensando que si David puede amar, también puede odiar. En el camino, Mónica cambia de opinión y salva a David de la destrucción dejándolo en el bosque.

Con Teddy como única compañía, David recuerda Las Aventuras de Pinocho y decide encontrar al Hada Azul para que lo convierta en un niño de verdad, lo que cree que le devolverá el amor de Mónica.David y Teddy son capturados por una "Feria de la Carne", un acontecimiento parecido a un circo ambulante en el que se destruyen Mechas obsoletos ante multitudes que se burlan.

David está a punto de ser destruido y ruega por su vida. El público, engañado por la naturaleza realista de David, se rebela y permite que David escape junto a Gigolo Joe, un Mecha prostituto que huye de las autoridades tras ser inculpado de asesinato.

David, Teddy y Joe se dirigen a la decadente ciudad turística de Rouge City, donde el "Dr. Know", un motor de respuestas holográfico, les dirige a la cima del Rockefeller Center, en las ruinas inundadas de Manhattan, y también ha proporcionado información de cuento de hadas que David interpreta como una sugerencia de que un Hada Azul tiene el poder de ayudarle.

Por encima de las ruinas de Manhattan, David se encuentra con el profesor Hobby, su creador, que le dice que su encuentro demuestra la capacidad de David para amar y desear.

David encuentra muchas copias de sí mismo, incluyendo variantes femeninas llamadas "Darlene", en cajas y listas para ser enviadas.

Desanimado por la pérdida de su sentido de la individualidad, David intenta suicidarse cayendo al mar desde un rascacielos.

Mientras está bajo el agua, David divisa una figura parecida al Hada Azul antes de que Joe lo rescate en un avión anfibio.

Antes de que David pueda explicarse, Joe es capturado mediante un electroimán por las autoridades.

David y Teddy toman el control de la aeronave para ver al Hada, que resulta ser una estatua de una atracción de Coney Island.

Los dos quedan atrapados cuando la Rueda de las Maravillas cae sobre su vehículo.

Creyendo que el Hada Azul es real, David pide a la estatua que le convierta en un niño de verdad, y repite esta petición hasta que su fuente de energía interna se agota.Dos mil años después, los humanos se han extinguido y Manhattan está enterrada bajo el hielo glacial.

Los Mecha han evolucionado hasta alcanzar una forma avanzada, y un grupo de ellos, llamado los Especialistas, se ha interesado por conocer a la humanidad.

Encuentran y reviven a David y a Teddy. David se acerca a la estatua del Hada Azul congelada, que se derrumba cuando la toca. Los Especialistas reconstruyen la casa de la familia Swinton a partir de los recuerdos de David y le explican, a través de una imagen interactiva del Hada Azul, que es imposible convertir a David en un niño de verdad.

Sin embargo, ante la insistencia de David, utilizan sus conocimientos científicos para recrear a Mónica a través del material genético del mechón de pelo que guardaba Teddy. Esta Mónica sólo puede vivir un día, y el proceso no puede repetirse.

David pasa su día más feliz con Mónica, y mientras ella se duerme por la noche, le dice a David que siempre le ha querido: "el momento eterno que había estado esperando", dice el narrador; "David también se duerme y va a ese lugar 'donde nacen los sueños'".

Reparto

Haley Joel Osment como David. Osment fue la primera y única elección de Spielberg para el papel. Para representar al personaje, Osment evitó parpadear y se "programó" con una buena postura.Frances O'Connor como Monica SwintonSam Robards como Henry SwintonJude Law como Gigolo Joe. Para preparar el papel, Law estudió la actuación de Fred Astaire y Gene Kelly, cuyos movimientos emula Joe. Jake Thomas como Martin SwintonWilliam Hurt como el profesor Allen HobbyBrendan Gleeson como el empresario de Flesh Fair Lord Johnson-JohnsonJack Angel como Teddy (voz)Ken Leung, Matt Winston, Eugene Osment y Clark Gregg como empleados de Cybertronics CorpApril Grace como Colega FemeninaEnrico Colantoni como El AsesinoPaula Malcomson como Patricia en la Sala de los EspejosAshley Scott como Gigoló JaneKathryn Morris como Miel AdolescenteAdrian Grenier como Adolescente en la FurgonetaRobin Williams como Dr. Know (voz)Ben Kingsley como Especialista (voz)Meryl Streep como Hada Azul (voz)Chris Rock como Robot Comediante (voz)Erik Bauersfeld como Jardinero (voz)Ministerio como Banda de la Feria de la Carne

Production

Development

Kubrick began development on an adaptation of "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long" in the late 1970s, hiring the story's author, Brian Aldiss, to write a film treatment.

In 1985, Kubrick asked Steven Spielberg to direct the film, with Kubrick producing.

Warner Bros. agreed to co-finance A.I. and cover distribution duties.

The film labored in development hell, and Aldiss was fired by Kubrick over creative differences in 1989. Bob Shaw briefly served as writer, leaving after six weeks due to Kubrick's demanding work schedule, and Ian Watson was hired as the new writer in March 1990. Aldiss later remarked, "Not only did the bastard fire me, he hired my enemy [Watson] instead." Kubrick handed Watson The Adventures of Pinocchio for inspiration, calling A.I. "a picaresque robot version of Pinocchio".Three weeks later, Watson gave Kubrick his first story treatment, and concluded his work on A.I. in May 1991 with another treatment of 90 pages. Gigolo Joe was originally conceived as a G.I. Mecha, but Watson suggested changing him to a male prostitute.

Kubrick joked, "I guess we lost the kiddie market." Meanwhile, Kubrick dropped A.I. to work on a film adaptation of Wartime Lies, feeling computer animation was not advanced enough to create the David character.

After the release of Spielberg's Jurassic Park, with its innovative computer-generated imagery, it was announced in November 1993 that production of A.I. would begin in 1994. Dennis Muren and Ned Gorman, who worked on Jurassic Park, became visual effects supervisors, but Kubrick was displeased with their previsualization, and with the expense of hiring Industrial Light & Magic.

Pre-production

In early 1994, the film was in pre-production with Christopher "Fangorn" Baker as concept artist, and Sara Maitland assisting on the story, which gave it "a feminist fairy-tale focus".

Maitland said that Kubrick never referred to the film as A.I., but as Pinocchio.

Chris Cunningham became the new visual effects supervisor.

Some of his unproduced work for A.I. can be seen on the DVD, The Work of Director Chris Cunningham.

Aside from considering computer animation, Kubrick also had Joseph Mazzello do a screen test for the lead role. Cunningham helped assemble a series of "little robot-type humans" for the David character.

"We tried to construct a little boy with a movable rubber face to see whether we could make it look appealing," producer Jan Harlan reflected.

"But it was a total failure, it looked awful." Hans Moravec was brought in as a technical consultant.

Meanwhile, Kubrick and Harlan thought A.I. would be closer to Steven Spielberg's sensibilities as director.

Kubrick handed the position to Spielberg in 1995, but Spielberg chose to direct other projects, and convinced Kubrick to remain as director.

The film was put on hold due to Kubrick's commitment to Eyes Wide Shut (1999).After Kubrick's death in March 1999, Harlan and Christiane Kubrick approached Spielberg to take over the director's position.

By November 1999, Spielberg was writing the screenplay based on Watson's 90-page story treatment.

It was his first solo screenplay credit since Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977).

Spielberg remained close to Watson's treatment, but removed various sex scenes with Gigolo Joe. Pre-production was briefly halted during February 2000, because Spielberg pondered directing other projects, which were Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Minority Report, and Memoirs of a Geisha.

The following month Spielberg announced that A.I. would be his next project, with Minority Report as a follow-up.

When he decided to fast track A.I., Spielberg brought Chris Baker back as concept artist.

Ian Watson reported that the final script was very faithful to Kubrick's vision, even the ending, which is often attributed to Spielberg, saying, "The final 20 minutes are pretty close to what I wrote for Stanley, and what Stanley wanted, faithfully filmed by Spielberg without added schmaltz."

Filming

The original start date was July 10, 2000, but filming was delayed until August.

Aside from a couple of weeks shooting on location in Oxbow Regional Park in Oregon, A.I. was shot entirely using sound stages at Warner Bros. Studios and the Spruce Goose Dome in Long Beach, California.Spielberg copied Kubrick's obsessively secretive approach to filmmaking by refusing to give the complete script to cast and crew, banning press from the set, and making actors sign confidentiality agreements.

Social robotics expert Cynthia Breazeal served as technical consultant during production.

Costume designer Bob Ringwood studied pedestrians on the Las Vegas Strip for his influence on the Rouge City extras.

Casting

Julianne Moore and Gwyneth Paltrow were considered for the role of Monica Swinton before Frances O'Connor was cast and Jerry Seinfeld was originally considered to voice and play the Comedian Robot before Chris Rock was cast.

Soundtrack

The film's soundtrack was released by Warner Sunset Records in 2001. The original score was composed and conducted by John Williams and featured singers Lara Fabian on two songs and Josh Groban on one. The film's score also had a limited release as an official "For your consideration Academy Promo", as well as a complete score issue by La-La Land Records in 2015. The band Ministry appears in the film playing the song "What About Us?" (but the song does not appear on the official soundtrack album).

Release

Marketing

Warner Bros. used an alternate reality game titled The Beast to promote the film. Over forty websites were created by Atomic Pictures in New York City (kept online at Cloudmakers.org) including the website for Cybertronics Corp. There were to be a series of video games for the Xbox video game console that followed the storyline of The Beast, but they went undeveloped.

To avoid audiences mistaking A.I. for a family film, no action figures were created, although Hasbro released a talking Teddy following the film's release in June 2001.A.I.

premiered at the Venice Film Festival in 2001.

Home media

A.I.

Artificial Intelligence was released on VHS and DVD in the U.S. by DreamWorks Home Entertainment on March 5, 2002 in widescreen and full-screen 2-disc special editions featuring an extensive sixteen-part documentary detailing the film's development, production, music and visual effects.

The bonus features also included interviews with Haley Joel Osment, Jude Law, Frances O'Connor, Steven Spielberg, and John Williams, two teaser trailers for the film's original theatrical release and an extensive photo gallery featuring production stills and Stanley Kubrick's original storyboards.

It was released overseas by Warner Home Video.The film was first released on Blu-ray in Japan by Warner Home Video on December 22, 2010, followed shortly after with a U.S release by Paramount Home Media Distribution (former owners of the DreamWorks catalog) on April 5, 2011. This Blu-ray featured the film newly remastered in high-definition and incorporated all the bonus features previously included on the 2-disc special-edition DVD. Warner Home Video currently owns the digital rights to the film worldwide.

Box office

The film opened in 3,242 theaters in the United States and Canada on June 29, 2001, earning $29.35 million at #1 during its opening weekend.

A.I went on to gross $78.62 million in the U.S. and Canada.

Opening on 524 screens in Japan, A.I. grossed almost 2 billion Yen in its first five days, the biggest June opening ever in Japan at the time, and sold more tickets in its opening weekend than Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, although grossed slightly less. It went on to gross $78 million in Japan. It grossed $79 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $235.93 million.

Reception

On Rotten Tomatoes, A.I. Artificial Intelligence holds an approval rating of 75% based on reviews from 197 critics, with an average rating of 6.60/10.

The website's critical consensus reads, "A curious, not always seamless, amalgamation of Kubrick's chilly bleakness and Spielberg's warm-hearted optimism.

A.I. is, in a word, fascinating." On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 65 out of 100 based on reviews from 32 critics, which indicates "generally favorable reviews".

Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "C+" on an A+ to F scale.Producer Jan Harlan stated that Kubrick "would have applauded" the final film, while Kubrick's widow Christiane also enjoyed A.I. Brian Aldiss admired the film as well: "I thought what an inventive, intriguing, ingenious, involving film this was. There are flaws in it and I suppose I might have a personal quibble but it's so long since I wrote it." Of the film's ending, he wondered how it might have been had Kubrick directed the film: "That is one of the 'ifs' of film history—at least the ending indicates Spielberg adding some sugar to Kubrick's wine. The actual ending is overly sympathetic and moreover rather overtly engineered by a plot device that does not really bear credence.

But it's a brilliant piece of film and of course it's a phenomenon because it contains the energies and talents of two brilliant filmmakers." Richard Corliss heavily praised Spielberg's direction, as well as the cast and visual effects.Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of a possible four, saying that it is "wonderful and maddening".

Ebert later gave the film a full four stars and added it to his "Great Movies" list in 2011. Leonard Maltin, on the other hand, gives the film two stars out of four in his Movie Guide, writing: "[The] intriguing story draws us in, thanks in part to Osment's exceptional performance, but takes several wrong turns; ultimately, it just doesn't work. Spielberg rewrote the adaptation Stanley Kubrick commissioned of the Brian Aldiss short story 'Super Toys Last All Summer Long'; [the] result is a curious and uncomfortable hybrid of Kubrick and Spielberg sensibilities." However, he calls John Williams' music score "striking".

Jonathan Rosenbaum compared A.I. to Solaris (1972), and praised both "Kubrick for proposing that Spielberg direct the project and Spielberg for doing his utmost to respect Kubrick's intentions while making it a profoundly personal work." Film critic Armond White, of the New York Press, praised the film noting that "each part of David's journey through carnal and sexual universes into the final eschatological devastation becomes as profoundly philosophical and contemplative as anything by cinema's most thoughtful, speculative artists – Borzage, Ozu, Demy, Tarkovsky." Filmmaker Billy Wilder hailed A.I. as "the most underrated film of the past few years." When British filmmaker Ken Russell saw the film, he wept during the ending.Screenwriter Ian Watson has speculated, "Worldwide, A.I. was very successful (and the 4th-highest earner of the year) but it didn't do quite so well in America, because the film, so I'm told, was too poetical and intellectual in general for American tastes.

Plus, quite a few critics in America misunderstood the film, thinking for instance that the Giacometti-style beings in the final 20 minutes were aliens (whereas they were robots of the future who had evolved themselves from the robots in the earlier part of the film) and also thinking that the final 20 minutes were a sentimental addition by Spielberg, whereas those scenes were exactly what I wrote for Stanley and exactly what he wanted, filmed faithfully by Spielberg."Mick LaSalle gave a largely negative review.

"A.I. exhibits all its creators' bad traits and none of the good. So we end up with the structureless, meandering, slow-motion endlessness of Kubrick combined with the fuzzy, cuddly mindlessness of Spielberg." Dubbing it Spielberg's "first boring movie", LaSalle also believed the robots at the end of the film were aliens, and compared Gigolo Joe to the "useless" Jar Jar Binks, yet praised Robin Williams for his portrayal of a futuristic Albert Einstein.

Peter Travers gave a mixed review, concluding "Spielberg cannot live up to Kubrick's darker side of the future.", but still put the film on his top ten list that year. David Denby in The New Yorker criticized A.I. for not adhering closely to his concept of the Pinocchio character.

Spielberg responded to some of the criticisms of the film, stating that many of the "so called sentimental" elements of A.I., including the ending, were in fact Kubrick's and the darker elements were his own. However, Sara Maitland, who worked on the project with Kubrick in the 1990s, claimed that one of the reasons Kubrick never started production on A.I. was because he had a hard time making the ending work. James Berardinelli found the film "consistently involving, with moments of near-brilliance, but far from a masterpiece.

In fact, as the long-awaited 'collaboration' of Kubrick and Spielberg, it ranks as something of a disappointment." Of the film's highly debated finale, he claimed, "There is no doubt that the concluding 30 minutes are all Spielberg; the outstanding question is where Kubrick's vision left off and Spielberg's began." John Simon of the National Review described A.I. "as an uneasy mix of trauma and treacle".In 2002, Spielberg told film critic Joe Leydon that "People pretend to think they know Stanley Kubrick, and think they know me, when most of them don't know either of us". "And what's really funny about that is, all the parts of A.I. that people assume were Stanley's were mine. And all the parts of A.I. that people accuse me of sweetening and softening and sentimentalizing were all Stanley's.

The teddy bear was Stanley's.

The whole last 20 minutes of the movie was completely Stanley's.

The whole first 35, 40 minutes of the film—all the stuff in the house—was word for word, from Stanley's screenplay.

This was Stanley's vision." "Eighty percent of the critics got it all mixed up. But I could see why. Because, obviously, I've done a lot of movies where people have cried and have been sentimental.

And I've been accused of sentimentalizing hard-core material.

But in fact it was Stanley who did the sweetest parts of A.I., not me. I'm the guy who did the dark center of the movie, with the Flesh Fair and everything else. That's why he wanted me to make the movie in the first place. He said, 'This is much closer to your sensibilities than my own.'" He also added: "While there was divisiveness when A.I. came out, I felt that I had achieved Stanley's wishes, or goals."Upon re-watching the film many years after its release, BBC film critic Mark Kermode apologized to Spielberg in an interview in January 2013 for "getting it wrong" on the film when he first viewed it in 2001. He now believes the film to be Spielberg's "enduring masterpiece".

Accolades

Visual effects supervisors Dennis Muren, Stan Winston, Michael Lantieri, and Scott Farrar were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, while John Williams was nominated for Best Original Music Score. A.I. Artificial Intelligence lost to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring in both categories.

Steven Spielberg, Jude Law and Williams received nominations at the 59th Golden Globe Awards.

A.I. was successful at the Saturn Awards, winning five awards, including Best Science Fiction Film along with Best Writing for Spielberg and Best Performance by a Younger Actor for Osment.

Further reading

Harlan, Jan; Struthers, Jane M. (2009).

A.I. Artificial Intelligence: From Stanley Kubrick to Steven Spielberg: The Vision Behind the Film. London: Thames & Hudson.

ISBN 9780500514894.Rice, Julian (2017).

Kubrick's Story: Spielberg's Film: A.I. Artificial Intelligence.

Rowman & Littlefield.

ISBN 9781442278189.

External links

Official websiteOfficial Warner Bros. SiteA.I.

Artificial Intelligence at IMDbA.I.

Artificial Intelligence at AllMovieA.I.

Artificial Intelligence at Rotten TomatoesA.I.

Artificial Intelligence at Box Office MojoNO IMAGE DATA